The Highland Clans in the 1745 Rising



The Clan (Gael. "clann"="offspring") is a large group of people bearing the same name and formerly living in given areas, descended from a common progenitor and owing allegiance to the Clan Chief. This is the reason for so much obedience and so much paternal affection. The clansman who refused to risk his own life to protect his chief was considered a traitor who abandoned his sire in danger and the contempt he would incur was his most cruel punishment.
The septs are more loosely related families who also look for their protection to the clan chief whose authority they acknowledge.



AUTHORITY
The clan system combines the Celtic tradition of tanistry (where rulers are elected by an assembly, the candidate, the tanist, being nominated by the office holder who felt his death approach), with Norman Feudal rule of primogeniture. Thus, the collective heritage of the clan, the dùthaich (homeland), gave the right to settle the land to which the local chiefs ("chieftains") and leading gentry ("duine-uasals") who all claimed descend from the common ancestor, provided protection and over which they had authority as trustees for the people, whereas the complementary concept of oighreachd (inheritance) referred to charters granted by the feudal overlord and to heritage warranted from above. The latter concept, embodied by Scots Law, became increasingly important after the medieval period.
According to a non-Jacobite point-of-view, after Charlie's death, his younger brother, Henry (IX and I), Cardinal of York who left his personal heirlooms, including the Scottish Coronation Ring and Chivalric orders reverting to the Sovereign, to George III, had tacitly nominated him "Tanist" of the Royal line and heir to the Stewarts' rights to the throne


TACKSMEN
Rents and manrents were paid through the channel of tacksmen, a lesser gentry acting as estate managers who allocated strips of land, lent seed-corn and agrarian tools and arranged droving of cattle, taking a minor share of the payments made to the clan nobility, the fine. They also organized the mobilization of the Clan Host for warfare, weddings, funerals and hunts (in August with sport exercises, foreshadowing the modern Highland games). With an increase in droving, tacksmen became rich enough to finance the gentry's debts which were secured against their estates and as a result to acquire the land, so that, by the 1680's, the land in ownership largely coincided with the collective dùthaich.

FEUDING
If the clans had been united in a federation providing the germ for a nation, they certainly would have been the major factor in the history of Scotland. But they were independent and oft at war with one another.
When the oighreachd (inherited property) of the clan elite (fine), did not match the dùthaich (homeland) this led to territorial disputes and warfare like the one mentioned in the song "Airlie". Many clan histories record ferocious and long-lasting feuding. On the western littoral, clans became involved in the wars of the Irish against the Tudor English and a caste of mercenaries (buannachan) developed, who seasonally fought in Ireland as mercenaries. This caused James VI/I to initiate the so-called Irish Plantations. Disputes were, however, more and more settled by law and the last feud leading to a battle was in Lochaber on 4 August 1688.



REIVING
"Lifting" cattle from neighbouring clans, an old rite of passage for young men, still persisted by the late 17th century in the form of spreidh, where raids in the Lowlands were performed by cateran bands (up to 50 members) and the livestock taken often restituted on payment of tascal. Some clans offered protection against such raids. Several Jacobite songs allude to this surprising practice (e.g. "Kane to the King").


CIVIL WAR AND JACOBITISM
In the early 17th century the Anti-royalist Covenanters were supported by the territorially ambitious Clans Campbell (of Argyll) and Sutherland and some clans of the central Highlands. While some clans remained neutral, others, led by Montrose, SUPPORTED THE ROYAL CAUSE, PROJECTING THEIR FEUDAL OBLIGATIONS TO CLAN CHIEFS ONTO THE ROYAL HOUSE OF STUART.

With the restoration of Charles II, Episcopalian rite became widespread among clans, whose hierarchical structure it suited, encouraging obedience to Royal authority, while other clans were converted by catholic missions.
In 1682 the Duke of York (Charles' brother and future King James VII/II) instituted the Commission for Pacifying the Highlands which worked in co-operation with the clan chiefs in maintaining order and redressing the Campbell aggressive acquisitiveness and when he became King he retained popularity with many highlanders.

The support for the Stuarts continued when James was deposed by William of Orange and, in addition to their remoteness from authority and the ready mobilisation of the clan hosts, made the Highlands the starting point for the Jacobite Risings against the corruptive Union of Parliaments.


DESTRUCTION OF THE CLAN SYSTEM
Successive governments had depicted the clans as bandits needing occasional military expeditions to keep them in check and extract taxes, if not as savages eating babies. As Highlanders became associated with Jacobitism and rebellion, the government made repeated efforts to tame the clans culminating after Culloden with brutal repression. This was followed in 1746 with the ACT OF PROSCRIPTION and further measures restricting their ability to bear arms, traditional dress, culture and even music, and the HERITABLE JURISDICTIONS ACT which removed the feudal authority of the Clan Chieftains.


CLEARANCES AND EMIGRATION
From around 1725, clansmen had been emigrating to America, with gentry looking to re-establish their lifestyle, or as victims of raids on the Hebrides, looking for cheap labour. Increasing demand in Britain for cattle and sheep led to higher rents with surplus clan population leaving in the mass migration later known as the Highland Clearances. Thus the traditional clan system was finally undermined.

ROMANTIC REVIVAL, BALMORALISM
The Ossian poems of James McPherson in the 1760s suited the Romantic enthusiasm for the "sublime" "primitive" and achieved international success with a disguised elegy for the Jacobite clans, set in the remote past. Following this the writings of Sir Walter Scott as well as the pomp surrounding the visit of King George IV to Scotland in 1822 spurred 19th century interest in the clans and a reawakening of Scottish culture and pride (Balmoralism).
Soon after the DRESS ACT restricting kilt wearing was repealed in 1782, Highland aristocrats set up Highland Societies in Edinburgh, London and Aberdeen and landowners' clubs. Later clubs like the Celtic Society of Edinburgh included Highland chieftains and Lowlanders taking an interest in the clans.


LOWLANDS AND LOWLAND CLANS
More than once the clansmen supported the King's authority against the Lowlanders as a result of a long-inherited grudge. They considered them the illicit occupants of lands that their forefathers had to give up to Saxon invaders. This antipathy was still increased when Knox' preaching caused Calvin's doctrine to be adopted by most of the Lowlanders, prompting them to rebel against the King's government and eventually overthrow it, whereas the Highlanders often took up arms and distinguished themselves in defence of their ill-fated monarchs.
The present Chief of the Honourable Clan Ranald of Lochaber -continuing the McDonalds of Keppoch- states that:
"Gaelic was spoken throughout Scotland long before Doric (today referring to the dialect spoken in the north-east of Scotland) took hold after c 1056 and the introduction of Germanic forms of English which took hold after the onslaught on our native language Gaelic, the language of the Gael and Scot alike."
Going still further back, Chief Ranald Alasdair McDonald of Keppoch adds "
that there were Gaels and Scots, who though connected were not exactly the same people. Celts ruled all of what we call Britain long before the Romans and other foreign invaders landed on these hallowed shores."
From 1124 the Scottish King David I began the spread of (Germanic speaking) Scots to the whole of the Lowlands, while the Highlands remained Gaelic under the Clan System. The term clan was still being used of Lowland families until the end of the 19th century.
By the late 18th century the Lowlands were integrated into the British system, with an uneasy relationship to the Highlanders. The total population of Lowlanders diminished drastically in some parts of the south as a direct result of the Agricultural Revolution, which resulted in the Lowland Clearances and the subsequent emigration of large numbers of Lowland Scots.
However, with the revival of interest in Gaeldom (Gaelic speaking territory and Gaelic culture) and the visit of King George IV to Scotland in 1822, there was a new enthusiasm amongst Lowlanders for identification with the Highlands. As a result many Lowland families and aristocrats now appear on clan lists with their own supposed tartans, coats-of-arms, etc... – encouraged, by mercantile manufacturers of tartan cloth and related devices and by a widely spread interest for genealogical research, beginning in the last years of the twentieth century (and making use of the Internet!).

Le Clan (gaélique "clann"="progéniture") est un groupe étendu de personnes portant le même nom, vivant autrefois dans des zones bien délimitées, descendant d'un ancêtre commun et qui font allégeance au chef de clan. C'était là la raison de tant d'obéissance et de tant d'affection toute paternelle. Le membre d'un clan qui refusait de risquer sa vie pour protéger son chef était considéré comme un traître qui désertait son père au moment du danger et le mépris qu'on lui portait était son châtiment le plus cruel.
Les septs sont des familles apparentées qui bénéficient de la même protection du chef de clan dont elles reconnaissent l'autorité.


AUTORITE
La société clanique combinait la tradition celtique de la tanisterie où les chefs étaient élus par une assemblée, le candidat taniste étant proposé par le détenteur de l'office, avec la coutume féodale normande de primogéniture. Ainsi, l'héritage collectif du clan, le dùthaich (patrie), donnait-il le droit d'exploiter les terres placées sous la protection de chefs locaux ou "chieftains" et de gentilshommes ou "duine-uasals" qui tous pouvaient faire remonter leur origine à l'ancêtre commun et sur lesquelles s'étendait l'autorité que le peuple leur avait déléguée, tandis que le concept complémentaire de oighreachd (héritage) faisait référence à des chartres accordées par le suzerain et à un héritage garanti par l'autorité supérieure. Ce 2ième concept, gravé dans le Droit de l'Ecosse, revêt une importance croissante dès la Renaissance.
Selon un point de vue non-Jacobite, après la mort de Charlie, son frère cadet, Henri (IX et I), Cardinal d'York qui abandonna son héritage, y compris l'Anneau de Couronnement et les Ordres de Chevalerie Ecossais apanages du Souverain, à George III, avait tacitement désigné ce dernier comme "Taniste" de la lignée royale et héritier du Trône des Stuart.

TACKSMEN
Loyers et mannerentes étaient encaissés par les tacksmen, petits nobles faisant office de régisseurs qui allouaient les terrains, prêtaient semences et outils aratoires et organisaient les transhumances, moyennant une part prélevée sur les sommes versées aux nobles du clan, la "fine". C'est eux aussi qui mobilisaient l'Ost du clan pour la guerre, les mariages, les funérailles et les chasses du mois d'août (avec des exercices ancêtres des "Jeux des Highlands"). Avec l'intensification de la transhumance, ils s'enrichirent jusqu'à financer les dettes des nobles gagées sur les terres qu'ils finirent par acquérir et dans les années 1680, la quasi totalité du dùthaich était devenue propriété privée.

LUTTES DE CLANS
Si les clans avaient été unis dans une fédération d'où une nation eût pu germer, ils auraient eu une influence déterminante sur les destinées de l'Ecosse. Mais ils étaient indépendants et souvent en guerre entre eux.
Quand la oighreachd (héritage) de l'élite du clan (fine), ne coïncidait pas avec la dùthaich (le territoire), cela entraînait des différends et des guerres, comme dans le chant "Airlie". L'histoire des clans est pleine de ces luttes longues et féroces. A l'ouest de l'Ecosse, les clans intervinrent dans les guerres entre les Irlandais et les Tudor, donnant naissance à une caste de mercenaires, les (buannachan), qui allaient périodiquement combattre en Irlande. C'est ainsi que vint à Jacques VI/I Stuart l'idée d'implanter des colons anglais en Irlande. Mais de plus en plus de différends furent réglés par voie judiciaire et la dernière bataille entre clans eut lieu à Lochaber, le 4 août 1688.


REIVING
"Soulever" (voler) le bétail des clans voisins était un vieux rite de passage des jeunes hommes, qui prenait à la fin du 17ème siècle la forme du spreidh, de raids dans les Lowlands par des bandes d'une cinquantaine de caterans qui restituaient souvent leur butin contre paiement du tascal. Certains clans proposaient leur protection contre ces razzias. Plusieurs chants Jacobites parlent de cette surprenante pratique (par exemple "Le Tribut au roi").

GUERRE CIVILE ET JACOBITISME
Au début du 17ième siècle, les Covenantaires antiroyalistes avaient l'appui des expansionnistes Clans Campbell et Sutherland et de quelques clans du centre des Highlands. Si certains clans restaient neutres, d'autres, sous la conduite de Montrose, SOUTINRENT LA CAUSE ROYALE, EN PROJETANT LEURS OBLIGATIONS FEODALES ENVERS LES CHEFS DE CLANS SUR LA FAMILLE ROYALE DES STUART.

Avec la restauration de Charles II, le rite Episcopalien eut la faveur des clans, parce qu'il épousait leur structure hiérarchisée et prêchait l'obéissance à l'autorité royale. D'autres clans furent convertis par les missions catholiques.
En 1682, le Duc d'York (le frère de Charles et futur Roi Jacques VII/II) institua la Commission de Pacification des Highlands qui travailla, en collaboration avec les chefs de clans, à maintenir l'ordre et à freiner l'agressive boulimie des Campbell. Lorsqu'il devint roi, il conserva la sympathie de nombreux highlanders.

Le soutien aux Stuart ne cessa pas lorsque Jacques fut déposé par Guillaume d'Orange, tandis que l'éloignement du pouvoir central et la rapide mobilisation de l'ost faisaient des Highlands le foyer idéal d'un soulèvement Jacobite contre l'Union des Parlements considérée comme le fruit de la corruption.

DESTRUCTION DU SYSTEME CLANIQUE
Les gouvernements successifs avaient dépeint les clans comme des bandits qu'il fallait souvent mater et contraindre à l'impôt manu militari, quand on n'en faisait pas des sauvages cannibales. Quand "Highlander" rima avec "Jacobite" et "rébellion", tous les efforts du pouvoir tendirent à briser les clans, ce qui fut fait après Culloden sous forme d'une brutale répression, prolongée en 1746 par l'ACTE DE PROSCRIPTION et d'autres mesures leur interdisant le port des armes, du costume traditionnel, la pratique de leur culture et même de leur musique. L'ACTE SUR LES JURISDICTIONS HEREDITAIRES abolit l'autorité féodale des Chefs locaux.

EVICTIONS ET EMIGRATION
A partir de 1725, les "clansmen" se mirent à émigrer vers l'Amérique, tandis que la demande croissante en viande de boeuf ou de mouton conduisait à une augmentation des fermages et à l'exode des populations sans emploi, une migration de masse qu'on appellera plus tard les Evictions des Highlands. Cela sonna le glas du système clanique.


RENOUVEAU ROMANTIQUE, BALMORALISME
Les Poèmes d'Ossian de James Macpherson dans les années 1760 soulevèrent l' enthousiasme des Romantiques pour le "sublime" et le "primitif" et connurent un succès mondial teinté d'élégie déguisée pour les clans Jacobites, qu'on imaginait appartenir à des temps très reculés. Ensuite, les écrits de Walter Scott et la fastueuse visite de George IV en Ecosse en 1822 ranimèrent l'intérêt pour les clans et la réactivation de la culture et de la fierté nationale écossaises (Balmoralisme).
Peu après l'abrogation en 1782 du DRESS ACT réglementant le port du kilt, les aristocrates des Highlands fondèrent des "sociétés des Highlands" à Edimbourg, Londres et Aberdeen et des clubs de propriétaires. Plus tard des clubs tels que la Celtic Society d'Edimbourg accueillirent des "chieftains" des Highlands et des Lowlanders s'intéressant aux clans.

BASSES TERRES ET LOWLAND CLANS
Les clans soutinrent plus d'une fois l'autorité royale contre les habitants des Basses Terres envers qui ils étaient animés d'une haine héréditaire. Ils les considéraient comme les injustes détenteurs d'un sol dont leurs aïeux avaient été expulsés par l'envahisseur saxon. Cette antipathie ne fit qu'augmenter quand les prédications de Knox répandirent les doctrines de Calvin parmi la majorité des Lowlanders et les poussèrent à la rébellion envers l'autorité royale et au renversement du trône, tandis que les Highlanders prirent souvent les armes et se signalèrent par leur dévouement à la cause de leur roi malheureux.
L'actuel Chef de l'Honorable Clan Ranald de Lochaber, continuateur des McDonald de Keppoch souligne que:
"Le gaélique a été parlé dans toute l'Ecosse bien avant l'apparition du "Doric" (qui désigne de nos jours le dialecte du nord-est de l'Ecosse), à partir de 1056 environ et l'introduction de dialectes germaniques apparentés à l'anglais sur les ruines du gaélique qui est la langue maternelle des Gaëls comme des Scots."
Remontant encore plus loin, le Chef Ranald Alasdair McDonald of Keppoch ajoute "
qu'il y avait des Gaëls et des Scots, lesquels bien qu'ils aient des liens communs, n'étaient cependant pas le même peuple. Les Celtes étaient les maîtres de l'Île de Bretagne bien avant que les Romains et d'autres envahisseurs aient pris pied sur ces rivages sacrés".
A partir de 1124, le roi écossais David I fit venir dans les Lowlands des Scots (germaniques), tandis que les Highlands restaient gaéliques et organisés en Clans. Le mot "clan" resta cependant en usage pour désigner les familles des Lowlands jusqu'à la fin du 19ième siècle.
Vers la fin du 18ième siècle, les Lowlands furent intégrés dans l'économie britannique, ce qui n'améliora pas leurs rapports avec les Highlands. La population diminua considérablement dans certaines régions par suite de la révolution agricole, provoquant les "évictions des Lowlands" et l'émigration d'un bon nombre d'habitants.
Toutefois, le regain d'intérêt pour le Gaeldom (territoire d'expression et de culture gaëliques) et la visite du Roi George IV en Ecosse en 1822, suscitèrent un enthousiasme nouveau incitant les habitants des Lowlands à s'identifier à ceux des Highlands. Il en résulte que beaucoup de familles des Basses Terres figurent désormais sur des listes de clans avec leurs propres tartans, armoiries (de fantaisie) etc. – encouragés par d'entreprenants fabricants de tissus à carreaux et autres accessoires et par un intérêt généralisé pour la généalogie apparu dans les dernières années du XXème siècle (et favorisé par l'utilisation de l'Internet!).

JACOBITE CLAN SUPPORT IN THE '45

Source "The Bonnie Prince Charlie Country" by Rev. J.A. Carruth, Norwich, 1996
In brackets: Hanoverian forces. (0): did not fight in the 1745 rising. *: no figures known.
(See also "The Standart of Braemar: forces partaking in main battles)

Clan

Estimate

Outstanding Facts


BALFOURs*

*

Robert, fifth Lord Balfour of Burleigh, was sentenced to death for having killed the husband of his lover.
Like James Ogilvy, he escaped, wearing the clothes of his sister. In 1715 he was forfeited for his support of the Jacobite uprising.
Mentioned in The Piper of Dundee


CAMERONs

800

Chief Donald Cameron of Lochiel 1695 (?)-1748, "The Gentle Lochiel", grandson of Sir Ewen Cameron (one of the characters in 'Young Airlie') was the first of the major chieftains to join Charles Edward Stuart, the Young Pretender, in the Jacobite uprising in 1745. He was wounded in the battles of Falkirk and Culloden (1746) and escaped to France with the pretender where he died by Dunkirk.
Mentioned in The Standard of Braemar, Came Ye by Atholl, in the Gaelic Clans Song, "Rise, rise!", "Who wouldn't fight?", in battle songs like 'The Highlandmen came down the Hill', the "Gaelic song on the Battle of Falkirk" and many other songs ("Song for Lochiel", "Lochiel's Farewell", etc...) .
His father is listed in ' The Chevalier's Muster Roll' and in "If you go to Sherrifmuir".
Curiously, in the broadside song "When Charles first came" he is named Lochiel from the Isle of Skye...
The decisive role played by Clan Cameron and their gallant Chief in the battle of Prestonpans is illustrated in the song ""Tranentmuir".
John Roy Stewart in his poem "Culloden Day - Third Version" magnifies their courage.

Jean Cameron of Glendessary raised 300 men and led them to the Raising of the Standard on 19th August 1745.


CAMPBELLs

(3000)

They provided Prince Charles with a contingent of fighting forces in 1745, although, as mentioned in the Gaelic Clans Song, most of them fought with the Hanoverian Forces, while only scattered Campbells fought within the Jacobite Forces. Their chiefs systematically supported the Government: at Glencoe, Sherrifmuir and Culloden, which earned them Alexander McDonald's violent criticism

Chief John Campbell, Duke of Argyll and Greenwich, was a supporter of the 1707 Act of Union of England and Scotland. Having joined the Whig opposition, he secured the Hanoverian succession, and, in 1715, led the victorious government army at Sheriffmuir
He is said to have written self-laudatory lyrics to The Bannocks of Barley


CARNEGIEs


(CHATTANs: see McKintosh)

*

North and South Esk rivers in the County of Angus.
A Carnegie, 5th Earl of Ethie, was forfeited after his support of the House of Stuart in the 1745 Rising. Mentioned in 'The Piper of Dundee'.


CHISHOLMs

200

Chief Roderic Maciain Chisholm took part in the 1715 rising and old Chisholm of Crocfin fought with 200 men of the clan at Sheriffmuir. After the family could be purchase back their forfeited estates, they still adhered to the Jacobite cause, and in 1745 Roderick, a younger son of the chief, was appointed colonel of a battalion. Of the Chisholms who fought at Culloden, less than 50 survived, and Roderick was among the fallen.

William Chisholm, standart bearer of the Clan could be the young man referred to in "Mo run gea og" and Lament for the Chisholm


DOUGLASses

(*)

Archibald Douglas, known as the 'Earl of Angus' had been, on the 10th April 1703, as he was only eight, created Duke of Douglas in order to purchase the loyalty of the Douglases and steering them away from Jacobitism. Consequently, Archibald fought for the Hanoverian regime at the battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715 -where Douglases fought on both sides:
"The Angus lads had nae gude will
That day their neibors’ blude to spill;"
(see "The Battle of Sherramuir" - 5th verse and "If you go to Sherrifmuir")- and was later a staunch supporter of the government during the Jacobite rebellion of 1745.


DRUMMONDs

300

William Drummond of Machany, (1690 - 1746), 4th Viscount of Strathallan and his youngest brother Thomas repaired to the standard of the Earl of Mar in 1715. The Viscount was taken prisoner at the battle of Sheriffmuir, but escaped personal punishment. Nevertheless, in 1745 he joined the Jacobite army with his eldest son, James Drummond of Machany(see hereafter). After the victory at Prestonpans where he commanded the only Jacobite cavalry unit, he was left in command of the forces stationed in Scotland, while his cavalry under Kilmarnock followed Charles in his march south. At the battle of Culloden he commanded the right wing and, when it gave way, he was killed on the spot. His wife, Margaret Murray (+1773, daughter of William Murray, 2nd Lord Nairn), also a Jacobite was imprisoned in the castle of Edinburgh during 6 months in 1746.

His son, James Drummond of Machay, was joint commander of the Jacobite army alongside Lord George Murray. At the Battle of Culloden he commanded the left wing (see 3d verse of "The Highland men came down the hil"). He managed to evade capture after Culloden but was declared guilty of High Treason. He felt that the safest course of action was to leave the country. Following rumours of his death on board a ship bound for France, he settled in South Biddick in the north-east of England. He married and had six children. He died in 1782. Burns's 'Strathallan's Lament' probably refers to him.

Their remote relative, the Catholic James Drummond, 4th Earl of Perth (1649- 1716) joined the exiled King James II/VII at Saint Germain. James who made him 1st Duke of Perth. His son (1673 - 1720), 2nd Duke of Perth, accompanied the exiled monarch to Ireland. He married in 1706 Lady Jean Gordon (1682 -1773) who was imprisoned for 10 months in Edinburgh for her part in the 1745 uprising. Their two sons James, 3d Duke of Perth (1713-1746) and John Drummond (1716 -1747), celebrated Jacobite leaders, also fought at Culloden and were attainted.
They are mentioned in the last verse of "The Battle of Falkirk" as "Drummond, Perth and a'" and in the broadside song "When Charles first came" along with five other Clan chiefs and in the Gaelic song on Lochiel.


ERSKINEs

*

Lord John Erskine, 6th and 23th Earl of Mar (1675-1732), (later known as "Bobbin' John" after he had changed sides and informed on many of his former allies), divested of his function as a State secretary by the Hanoverian King George Ist, was the principal promoter and organizer of the Jacobite Rising of 1715. He raised King James VIII's Standard amid great enthusiasm, on 6th september 1715, in Braemar. After the defeat at Sheriffmuir, his estates were forfeited to the Crown.
He is staged in nearly all songs about the 1715 uprising:
"Old Stuart's back again"
"If you go to Sherrifmuir"
"Dialogue between Argyle and Mar"
"Brigadier McKintosh"


FARQUHARSONs

500

Source of River Dee. In the rising of 1715 John Farquharson of Invercauld with 150 men was taken prisoner at Preston. At Culloden the Fs were in the centre of the front line as mentioned by James Roy Stewart in hisThird Song on Culloden Day". His son,James, was in 1745 a captain of foot in the Hanoverian Army.


FRAZERs OF LOVAT

700

South of Inverness. Simon, 11th Lord Lovat, (Mac Shim) also kown as "The Fox", deeply involved in the rising of 1745 was executed after Culloden.
Several tunes on Mac Shim and his clan were collected by another Frazer, Captain Simon Frazer ( "Morair Sim", etc...)
Whereas Lord Lovat is quoted in "Rise, rise!" and "News of Prince Charles", his Clan is mentioned in the Gaelic Clans Song as "Frasers". John Roy Stewart in his poem "Culloden Day - Third Version" magnifies their courage.


GORDONs

300

During the Jacobite Uprisings of 1715 and 1745 there were Gordons on both sides.
The Marquess of Huntly, Alexander Gordon (1678-1728), known as "Cockolorum", mentioned in "Came Ye frae France", "The Chevalier's Musterroll" and "Auld Stuart's back again" was also known by the hereditary nickname of the Chief, "Cock of the North". He followed the Jacobites in 1715 but fled after the Battle of Sherrifmuir he defected to the Hanoverians, as stressed in "Up and waur 'm all" and in the 5th verse of the "Brooms of Cowdenknows.

General Alexander Gordon of Auchintool followed the Jacobites in 1715. He was the "Sandie Don" of the song "Came ye frae France" and the "second-sighted Sandie" of the song "Up an' Waur'm all!" (2nd verse) as well as of the 1745 rising song "A hundred Pipers". His "double sight" alludes to the fact that in both risings he foretold disaster, while remaining loyal to the Cause. His role in the '45, more than symbolic, explains his being mentioned in 2 other songs along with important chiefs (Lord Lovat, Lochiel...): "Rise, rise!" and "News of Prince Charlie".

William Gordon, 6th Viscount Kenmure, Lord Lochinvar born before 1672, was beheaded Feb. 24, 1716, in London, as a leader in the Jacobite rebellion of 1715 against King George I. Mentioned, with his -Lowland- brothers- in - law James and Robert Dalzell, in "The Chevalier's Musterroll", he is the Kenmure of the song "Kenmure's on and away". and the aborted endeavours of his wife, Lady Carnwath, to save him are addressed in "The Lady of Kenmure".

Their son The Marquis of Enzie, Lord Lewis Gordon was a celebrated Jacobite in 1745, mentioned in the Gaelic song on Lochiel and the Battle of Inverury.


GRAHAMs

*

James Graham, 1st Marquis of Montrose, was the illustrious Royalist and Lieutenant of Scotland for Charles I., who after several glorious campaigns on behalf of the Scottish Crown was executed by the Parliament, 1650.
John Graham of Claverhouse, Viscount of Dundee, called "Bonnie Dundee", was the greatest of the Jacobite commanders. He fell at Killiecrankie in command of the army of James VII. Mentioned in Dundee et Killiekrankie (2nd verse).


GRANTs Of GLENMORISTON & OF STRATHSPEY

100+850

Although mentioned in the Gaelic Clans Song, most of Grant clansmen of Strathspey fought with the Hanoverian Forces, whereas the Grants of Glenmoriston fought for the Jacobites on several occasions and are therefore named in "Rise, rise!", for instance.
The Chief, James Grant of that Ilk, and his son Ludovic, adhered to William of Orange for whom they fought at Cromdale.
In 1715 and 1745 they adhered to the House of Hanover.

Urquhart Castle on the Loch Ness, a Crown property whose Lordship was granted to the Grant family in 1479, was largely destroyed in 1692 - after three companies of Grant Highlanders had been holding the castle against Jacobite forces of more than twice their number - , so as to make sure that the castle could not become a Jacobite stronghold. It remained since then as a ruin.


HAYs

*

Mary Hay Countess of Erroll was an ardent Jacobite.
Her sister, Margaret, Countess of Linlithgow had a daughter married to the Jacobite Earl William of Kilmarnock who was executed (with Balmerino) in 1746 and whose son assumed the chiefship of clan HAY.
William's father, William Boyd, 3rd Earl of KILMARNOCK (d. 1717) was a partisan of the Hanoverian kings who fought for George I during the Jacobite rising of 1715. He is addressed in despising words in "Auld Stuart's back again".
The Clan is addressed in the song Gathering of the Hays.


IRVINEs

*

Though depicted as still hesitating in "Auld Stuart's back again"., the 14th Laird Alexander Irvine was a Jacobite who fought at the Battle of Sheriffmuir in 1715. He received a severe head wound in the battle and never recovered.
The 17th Laird, another Alexander, fought for Prince Charles Stuart at Culloden. He only escaped capture after the prince’s defeat by hiding in a secret room of his stately Drum Castle. He then spent several years in exile in France, before being allowed to return to his estates.


KEITHs

*

George Keith, Earl Marischal took part in the rebellion of 1715 (See note to "Auld Stuart's back again". He commanded 2 Squadrons at the battle of Sheriffmuir. He accompanied the Old Pretender to the continent. He returned to the Western Highlands in 1719 and was defeated. He took no part in the 1745 uprising.

The tenth Earl was 'out' in the '45 with his brother James, and forfeited his lands and titles. He is mentioned in The Piper of Dundee, and his wife, possibly, in Lady Keith's Lament.


McALISTERs

*

Alexander McAlister of Loup fought at Killiecrankie under Dundee and afterwards served in Ireland against William of Orange.
The Clan is possibly referred to as ""Allaster" in the "Chevalier's Musterroll".


McBAINs

*

Gillies Mor Macbean was one of the great heroes of the Battle of Culloden.
The Macbains had supported the earlier Jacobite rising of 1715, and many were transported to the plantations in Virginia, Maryland and South Carolina after the Stuart defeat. This did not deter the grandson of the twelfth chief, from taking up commission as a major to fight for the ‘Young Pretender’.
On Culloden day, in 1746, Gillies, a giant of a man said to be at least 6 feet 4 inches, saw government dragoons breaking through to assault the Highlanders in the flank. The major threw himself into the gap and, with his back to the wall, cut down thirteen or fourteen of his assailants until he himself was mortally wounded. A Hanoverian officer called back his men in an attempt to save a brave fellow soldier, but Macbean was already dead.
Other Macbains also distinguished themselves on that bloody field, and it was a Macbain who assisted Cameron of Lochiel, who was wounded and unable to walk, to escape to safety.
Aeneas Macbean made good his escape after the battle by leaping repeatedly from one side of a stream to the other until his exhausted pursuers were forced to give up.
The Gaelic dirge "My fair young love" is sometimes attributed to the wife of Major Gillies MacBain.


CLAN McDONALD or CLAN DONALD

More about the CLANS McDONALD

*

McDonald of the Isles refused to join the Jacobite army, as stated by John Roy Stuart in his Third Song on Culloden Day", though the Clan McDonald, also called "Clan Donald", were quoted in the first place in Alexander McDonald's "Gaelic Song of the Clans" and "Second Song for the Prince". Their merits are extolled in "A Thousand Curses".
It is difficult to decide which of the other McDonald Clans is meant in the songs:
"The Chevalier's Musterroll" (1715 Uprising),
"Gaelic Song on Falkirk",
"Standart of Braemar",
and "Come over the Stream".


McDONALDs of CLANRANALD

More about the CLANS McDONALD

700

Allan, Chief Donald's son, succeeded his father as 14th chief when he was only thirteen. Three years later he fought with Dundee and was forced to flee to France where he served in the army. When he heard of the raising of the standart at Braemar, he rallied at once the Jacobite cause. He led the right wing of the Jacobite army at Sherrifmuir, where he fell in September 1715. He is mentioned in "If you go to Sherrifmuir" and in six dirges by Silis McDonald and Neil McVurich, whereas his brother Ranald is addressed, as "Ronald", in the "Chevalier's Musterroll".
Succession passed to Donald of Benbecula, who had also fought at Killie-crankie. It was his son, Ranald, who became famous during the rising of 1745 as Old Clanranald, to distinguish him from his dashing son, Ranald, Younger of Clanranald, (Mac Mhic Ranald), who led 751 men of the clan out for Bonnie Prince Charlie, the ‘Young Pretender’. He lived in exile after Culloden but was allowed to return to Scotland in 1754.

The Clan is specifically named in many songs:
"Another song for the Prince"
"The Standard of Braemar"
"The Silver Flute"
"Came Ye by Atholl"
Gaelic Clans Song.
and The Men of ClanRanald.

Flora McDonald helped the Prince to escape from South Uist to Skye.
Mentioned in Flora McDonald's Lament, Speed, Bonnie Boat, etc...


McDONALDs Of Glencoe and OF SLEAT.

More about the CLANS McDONALD

150+(700)

The infortunate McDonalds of Glencoe are addressed in the songs on the massacre of Glencoe.

Sleat remained loyal to the Stuart cause and fought with his clansmen at Killiecrankie in 1689, when they suffered heavy losses. His son, Sir Donald, was an ardent Jacobite, and although he was taken ill and forced to return home, to lead the clan at the Battle of Sherrifmuir. He died two years later. He is mentioned in "Alasdair à Gleanna Garadh". Despite strong Jacobite sympathies, the next chief, Sir Alexander, took no part in the rising of 1745 .


McDONALDs of GLENGARRY

More about the CLANS McDONALD

500

ALASTAIR DUBH (the Darkhaired), 11th Chief of the McDonalds of Glengarry took part in the 1715 rebellion on the Jacobite side and fought at Killiecrankie and Sherrifmuir where he is said to have rallied the dismayed Highlanders by throwing up his bonnet and crying ‘Revenge today and mourning tomorrow’. (See the song "Up and waur'm all"). Sileas McDonald of Keppoch composed for him the dirge "Alasdair à Gleanna Garadh".

Clan McD of Glengarry or their chief are mentioned in The Standard of Braemar, "Wha wadna fecht?"" and Came Ye by Atholl.
The McDonalds of Gl. were present at Falkirk and Culloden.
After Culloden Old Chief Glengarry was taken prisoner and immured in Edinburgh Castle. He is mentioned in the broadside song "When Charles first came" along with five other Clan chiefs.
The death of Alexander [Alasdair Ruadh, or Red(haired) Alexander], Chief John McD of Glengarry's eldest son, and the missing at Culloden of the McD under Barisdale are evoked in "Culloden Day - Third Version"


McDONALDs of KEPPOCH

More about the CLANS McDONALD

150

East of Fort William
They are specifically named in "The Silver Flute"

The poetess Sileas McDonald of Keppoch composed the dirge "Alasdair à Gleanna Garadh"

17th Chief Alexander McD of Keppoch on the arrival of Prince Charles declared at once for him and prompted many chiefs to raise men. When his regiments were giving way at Culloden he was wounded by a musket shot, but went on fighting alone till he was killed by a second shot.
His cousin Donald McD of Tirnadis also fell at Culloden (1746).


MCDOUGALLs (0)

200

As mentioned in the song Bhi'gan cuimhneachadh..., Chief Iain Ciar was present with 200 of his clansmen at Sherrifmuir. He was forced into exile, but was pardoned in 1727.
The clan is possibly mentioned as "Dougald" in the "Chevalier's Musterroll".


McGILLIVRAYs

*

A McGillavry of Dunmaghlass is mentioned the "Chevalier's Muster Roll" of 1715.
And it was certain Farquhar McGillevrey who slew Colonel Gardiner at the battle of Prestonpans (21st Sept 1745).
Chief Alexander led his clan at Culloden and fell fighting on the battlefield at a well that still bears his name. He is mentioned in The Standard of Braemar.
The Donald McGillavry" sung by James Hogg is a name used as a convenient designation for the Highlanders loyal to the Stuart cause.


McGREGORs

500

Rob Roy McGregor, the most celebrated freebooter was a Jacobite. For the 1715 Uprising his clan is included on the "Chevalier's Musterroll".
His son Captain DRUMMOND, alias James Mor McGregor, fell at Prestonpans.
For the '45, the Clan is mentioned in "the Gaelic song on the Battle of Falkirk"., but John Roy Stewart in his poem "Culloden Day - Third Version" deplores their absence at Culloden.


McINNESses

(*)

Although they had followed the Campbells in supporting the Covenanting and Hanoverian interests, one section of the clan, which had become connected withthe Stewarts of Ardsheal, followed Prince Charles in 1745.


McINTYREs

*

The Chief, James, would have joined Charlie in 1745 but for the influence of his Campbell wife. Many clansmen however fought under the banner of the Stewarts of Appin. They are mentioned in "the Gaelic song on the Battle of Falkirk".
The great Macintyre bard, Duncan Ban, fought for the house of Hanover at the Battle of Falkirk in 1746.


McKAYs

(500)

Their Chief, General McKay, was commander-in-chief of the Williamite army at Killiekrankie.


McKENZIEs (0)

2000

William, 5th Earl of Seaforth was attainted as a Jacobite. He is mentioned in connection with the 1715 Uprising in:
"Old Stuart's back again"
"The Chevalier's Musterroll"
"Cabar Feidh"
"If you go to Sherrifmuir"
"Up and waur'm all"
and The New Broom of Cowdenknows.

"The Silver Flute" evokes the Clan's partaking in the 1745 Uprising, but the McKenzies of Kintail quoted in the "Gaelic Clans Song" fought as an independent company in the Government's forces, except those raised by the Chief's wife, Lady Fortrose.

The MacKenzie Regiment led by George McKenzie, 3d Earl of Cromartie, was attacked by the Sutherland Militia and prevented from joining the Jacobite army at the Battle of Culloden. (See "Third Song on Culloden Day".)


McKINNONs

200

The clan was "out" in the year 1745, followed the Prince and fought at Culloden; their old Chief was taken and died, after long inprisonment, in 1756.
Nevertheless John Roy Stewart in his poem "Culloden Day - Third Version" deplores their absence at Culloden.
Mentioned in the Gaelic Clans Song, as "Clan Finnon" ("Clann-Fhionghain").


McKINTOSHes and CHATTANs

800

Sometimes referred to as Clan Chattan;
Chief Lachlan took part in the 1715 rising. He died in 1731. He is included in the "Chevalier's Musterroll".

Brigadier William McKintosh played an outstanding role as a Jacobite rebel in the 1715 rebellion.

Chief Angus, in command of a company of the Black Watch, half-heartedly supported King George, whilst 400 of the clansmen, recruited by his wife, "Colonel Anne", fought for Charlie under the command of McGillivray of Dunmaglass epecially at Falkirk.
The "colonel" was the heroine of the "Rout of Moy" episode.
The clan is mentioned in Came Ye by Atholl, in the Gaelic Clans Song and the valliant lady in the stirring "Lament for Lady McKintosh" by John Roy Stewart who in his poem "Culloden Day - Third Version" magnifies the courage of the Clansmen.


McLACHLANs

200

The Maclachlans fought at Killiecrankie in 1689, and their chief was present at the raising of the standard of in 1715. They took part in the Battle of Sheriffmuir. The chief was harried by the Campbells until his death in 1719, for his part in the rising. He could be mentioned as "Lauchlan" in the "Chevalier's Musterroll" (1715 Uprising).

In 1745 the Maclachlans rallied to Prince Charles Edward Stuart, making their way through Campbell country in time to join the prince at Prestonpans. When the Jacobite army invaded England, it was Maclachlan who was sent north to Perth to collect reinforcements.
In 1746 Chief Lachlan came with his men from the very centre of Argyll and was killed at Culloden. His lands were seized as attainted, but the next heir was granted possession, in 1749. Mentioned in the Gaelic Clans Song, as "Clan Lachlan".


McLARENs

*

The Mclarens joined Bonnie Dundee and fought at Killiecrankie in 1689. They were ‘out’ in the Fifteen, taking part in the Battle of Sheriffmuir. They also gathered to the standard of Prince Charles Edward Stuart in 1745. The clan followed the prince from his victories at Prestonpans and Falkirk to the ill-fated Battle of Culloden in 1746. At the battle they were on the right of the line with the Appin regiment under Lord George Murray. Donald Maclaren was captured and carried off to Edinburgh. His castle was ravaged by Hanoverian troops. He escaped while being taken to Carlisle for trial by hurling himself down a track which none of the redcoats dared to follow. He remained a fugitive in his own castle Balquhidder until the amnesty of 1757.
The McLARENs are mentioned in the broadside song "When Charles first came"


McLEANs

500

Baronet Sir John, fought for King James at Killiekrankie and Sheriffmuir. The Clan is specifically named in the "Chevalier's Musterroll" (1715 Uprising).
Sir Hector, 5th Baronet is mentioned in Come O'er the Stream and in the Gaelic Clans Song. He is the "Heir of Dreollain" (in Mull and Morvern) referred to in Oran do Lochiall.


McLEODs

(700)

Although mentioned in the Gaelic Clans Song and "The Silver Flute", they fought within the Hanoverian Forces, except the MacLeods of Bernera, Muiravonside, Raasa, Glendale and Brea.
Mentioned in The Battle of Inverury


McMILLANs

*

John Macmillan of Murlaggan, chief of the Lochaber Macmillans, refused to join Prince Charles Edward unless the Stuarts renounced the Catholic faith.
Murlaggan’s eldest son defied his father and the Macmillans formed a company of Lochiel’s regiment which fought at Culloden. Both sons died in the battle.
Donald Macmillan from Tulloch was induced to surrender to the Duke of Cumberland under the impression that he and his companions from Glenurquart had been promised protection, but they were transported to the Caribbean without trial.
Hugh Macmillan from Glenmoriston guided the prince from Fasnakyle at the mouth of Glen Afric over the hills to Loch Arkaig after Culloden.


McNABs

(*)

In 1745, John,15th Chief, fought for the House of Hanover. But the clan was "out" for the Stewarts. The fifteenth chief was a Major in the British Army. His brother Archibald was also a serving officer and was taken prisoner by Jacobite forces at the Battle of Prestonpans in 1745. The Clan is mentioned in "the Gaelic song on the Battle of Falkirk".


McNEILs of BARRA

*

Chief Roderick was "out" with Dundee and fought at Killiecrankie in 1689 He rallied to the 'Old Pretender' in 1715..
His two sons, Roderick and James, went into exile in France. They returned on their father’s death. Roderick, the "Dove of the West" was imprisoned for his Jacobite sympathies in a ship, the 'Royal Sovereign'. He was later taken to London and was not released until July 1747.


McPHERSONs

300

Chief Lachlan's son, Ewan was the famous Cluny-McPherson, supporter of Prince Charles in 1745 whose army he joined with 400 clansmen. Engaged in operations in Atholl, they were too late for the battle of Culloden. After the Regiment was disbanded at Ruthven in April 1746 Ewan of Cluny spent nine years "in the heather" evading the Hanoverian Redcoats. He was most loyally harboured and assissted by his Clansmen, until he escaped to France in 1755
John Roy Stewart in his poem "Culloden Day - Third Version" deplores their absence at Culloden.
The clan is mentioned for the 1715 uprising in "the Chevalier's Musterroll" and, for the '45, in the Gaelic Clans Song as "Clan Vurich".


McRAEs

*

The McRaes are related to the McKenzie Barons of Kintail whose ablest and most loyal supporters they proved and helped the barony of Kintail, afterwards Earldom of Seaforth to the high position it occupies in Scottish history. They are referred to as "McCraw" in the 1715 rising songs "Chevalier's Musterroll" and "If you go to Sherrifmuir" and as "McRaedy" in the broadside song "When Charles first came". Chieftain John of Conchra fell at Sherrifmuir.


MALCOLMs or McCALLUMs

*

Though no mention could be found of this clan partaking in the Jacobite up-risings, in the 19th century broadside ballad "Callum a Ghlinne, Malcolm of the Glen" has become the symbol of all victims of the Hanoverian repression.


MAXWELLs

*

In the aftermath of the 1715 Uprising, the Earl of Nithsdale, the Chief of this Clan quoted in "The Chevalier's Musterroll" with his infortunate brother, Laird Cowhill, was sentenced to death as a Jacobite, but, by the aid of his wife, escaped to Rome where he died in 1744. For more details, see Maxwells welcome home


MENZIEs

300

Their Chief took no part in the rising of 45 though the Clan was "out" under Menzies of Shian.


MONROEs (or MUNROs)

(300)

They provided a small contingent, allthough their chief, Sir Robert Munro, was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the governmental 42nd Regiment.
He is nevertheless quoted in the broadside song "When Charles first came" along with five other Clan chiefs.
Loc'hiel's home was burnt to the ground after Culloden, on 28th May 1746 by men of Bligh's Regiment and a body of Munroes under the command of his next brother Captain George Munro of Culcairn.


MURRAYs of ATHOLL

3000

William Murray, Marquis of Tullibardine, having with his two brothers been "out" in 1715 (See "Old Stuart's back again" and "The Chevalier's Musterroll" where he is quoted as "Nairne" - a title transmitted by his wife) , was attainted for his share in that rising and the Dukedom of Atholl passed to his younger brother James. But the Jacobites went on styling William "Duke of Atholl".

The old William Murray, who was one of the Eight men of Moidart", raised the Prince Charles' standart at Glenfinnan in 1745 as described in "The Standard of Braemar" (which refers, in fact, to the raising of the Standard at Glenfinnan), and "Came Ye by Atholl". He was captured after Culloden and died in the Tower on 9th July 1746.

His uncle Lord William Murray, was the grandfather of Lord William Murray Nairne who married in 1806 Carolina Oliphant-Gask, the famous poetess Lady Nairne, the author of 17 songs in this collection.
Her grandfather Oliphant of Gask was aide-de-camp to Prince Charles.

Whereas his elder son, James, supported the Hanoverian Government,

his younger son, Lord George Murray ('Hieland Geordie') was a staunch Jacobite. He had taken a share in the insurrection of 1715, and was one of the few persons who joined the Spanish forces, which were defeated at Glenshiel in 1719. He afterwards went abroad, and was several years an officer in the King of Sardinia's army. But having obtained a pardon, he returned from exile, and was presented to King George I by his brother the Duke of Atholl. First unwilling to join the Young Pretender, he became at Perth, in September 1745, the commander in chief of the Prince's forces. A Gaelic speaker, his strategic skills were matched by his personal courage and popularity with his Highlanders. Unfortunately, his relationship with BPC became strained, if not openly hostile and when his sound advice was ignored by the Prince, the tide of fortune turned against the Jacobites. Even at Culloden, a charge led by him broke the Hanoverian ranks.
He died in exile, at Medenblinck, Holland, on 11 Oct. 1760.
It was the last time that his Highlanders of Atholl went to war, but the ceremonial guard of the chiefs – which became known as the "Atholl Highlanders" – still has the unique honour of being the only private army in the realm.
George Murray's ability and talent are extolled in "The Battle of Falkirk", in "The Highland men came down the hil" and "The Piper of Dundee", whereas he is injustly accused of treason by John Roy Stewart in the "First" and the "Third Song on Culloden Day".
The song
"the Fate of Charlie" brings the same accusation


OGILVYs of AIRLIE

*

The seat of the Airlie family is Cortachy Castle on the river South Esk.
During the civil war, the Ogilvys of Airlie stood loyally by the ancient monarchy.
James, 1st Earl of Airlie (c1593-1666) whose castle was destructed by the Earl of Argyll in 1640 is referred to in the song "Young Airlie".
His eldest son, James, 2nd Earl (1615-c1704), was in 1646 to have been executed by the Roundheads, but, the night before, escaped in his sister's clothes. Being pardoned, he fought against Cromwell and became again a prisoner in 1651, and was in the Tower of London during most of the years of the Commonwealth. In 1689 he ranged himself on the side of William of Orange against James II.
Several representatives of the family were attainted, for the part they took in the risings of 1715 and 1745. David, 6th earl (1725-1803), brought 600 men to Prince Charlie's standard. He was attainted, and after the defeat of Culloden escaped to Norway and Sweden, afterwards serving in the French army, where he commanded "le Régiment Ogilvy" and was known as "le bel Ecossais." In 1778 he was pardoned and allowed to return to Scotland.
He is mentioned in "The Piper of Dundee" and in "By Carnousie's auld Walls".


ROBERTSONs of STRUAN

200

Alexander Robertson of Struan (1668 -1749) had served under Dundee at Killiecrankie in 1689.
After James VII’s final defeat in 1690, the Robertson estates were forfeited, and the gallant and talented young chief joined the exiled court in France. He saw some service in the army of the French king, but was allowed to return to Scotland under a general amnesty granted by Queen Anne.
He did not seek any formal pardon from a Crown he still considered to be usurped, and he called out his clan in 1715 when the standard of the ‘Old Pretender’ was raised. He was twice captured by Government forces, and on each occasion contrived to escape, finally fleeing to exile again in France.
He once more took advantage of a general amnesty and returned to Scotland in 1725. However, he would take no oath of allegiance to the house of Hanover. Despite all he had suffered for the Stuart cause, he hastened to the side of Prince Charles Edward Stuart, although his age precluded him from active campaigning. He died in 1749 without issue.
In the songs he is referred to under various names: "McRabie" in "The Chevalier's Musterroll", "Raipert" in the "The Third song on Culloden Day" and "Strowan" in the "Piper of Dundee".


ROLLOs

*

Andrew, the third Lord Rollo, supported the Revolution of 1688 that brought Queen Mary and her husband, Prince William of Orange, to the throne.
Despite this, his son, the fourth Lord Rollo, was a staunch Jacobite who attended the hunting party in the forest of Mar in August 1715, as mentioned in the first version of the song "The Standard of Braemar" (see note to "Old Stuart's back again"). He fought at the Battle of Sheriffmuir but surrendered, along with Alexander Gordon, the Marquess of Huntly, to General Grant. He was imprisoned for a time, but pardoned in 1717. He died in March 1758.


ROSEs

*

At the outbreak of the Jacobite rising of 1715 the Roses declared for the Government. Arthur Rose was killed leading a detachment of the clan to seize Inverness. On the eve of the Battle of Culloden on 14 April 1746, Kilravock entertained Prince Charles Edward Stuart, while the Duke of Cumberland occupied the Rose’s town house at Nairn.


ROSSes

(300)

In the risings of 1715 and 1745 the clan as a whole avoided "Jacobite intrigues", although Malcolm, the Younger of Pitcalnie, joined the ‘Old Pretender’.
The song "Latha Chul-Lodair" by John Roy Stewart evokes in its 10th verse "the host of black Rosses (dubh-rosaich) eating the grass and the wheat of the land".


SINCLAIRs (0)

(500)

In 1715 David Sinclair of Brabsterdorran fought for Jacobite cause, as did John, Master of Sinclair who fled to Orkney.
In 1746 Sir James Siclair of Rosslyn commanded the Royal Scots on the Hanoverian side. About 500 Caithness Sinclairs followed him.
This clan is of French origin and claims descent from Wolderne Count de Saint Clair in Normandy. The clan is mentioned under that name in "Up and waur'm all".


STEWARTs of APPIN

300

The Stewarts, who were to become monarchs of the Scots, descended from a family who were seneschals of Dol in Brittany. They acquired estates in England after the Norman Conquest and Walter Flaad, the Steward, moved to Scotland when David I claimed his throne. He was created Steward of Scotland and granted extensive estates.
Robert, 8th Chief of the St.of Ap. was attainted for treason and fled into exile. He fought for James Stewart at Sherrifmuir.
Charles Stewart of Ardshiel led the men of Appin during the rising of 1745, and many fell at the grim field of Culloden, having first gained glory by breaking the Redcoat ranks.
Mentioned in Came Ye by Atholl? and, in the first place, in the Gaelic Clans Song


STEWARTs of ATHOLL

200

Mentioned in Came Ye by Atholl?
The Atholl Stewarts were reputed as the most disaffected clan to the Orange and Hanoverian successions. During the reign of William of Orange 1500 men joined the Marquis of Tullibardine to take part with Dundee, but, on learning that Tullibardine intended to take the opposite side, they at once put themselves under tha command of Stewart of Ballechin and set off to join Dundee's forces. In the subsequent battle of Killiekrankie they took a leading share.
At Culloden, the Atholl men and Camerons formed the right wing and completely routed the Hanoverian regiments opposed to them.
It is not clear if the "Roy of Kildarlie" quoted in "Came Ye by Atholl" refers to the soldier/poet John Roy Stewart or to the famous Rob Roy.


SUTHERLANDs

(700)

In 1745 William Sutherland, the 18th Earl, failed to raise his clan quickly enough to take effective action against Charlie. This incurred suspicions of disloyalty in London and he was forced to disband the militia when the clansmen were out to bring in the harvest. This led to the storming of the fortress Dunrobin when the Jacobite Cromartie brought 500 rebels, in February 1746. He narrowly missed the Earl who escaped through a back entrance and sailed for Aberdeen where he joined Cumberland's army.
The one "glorious" episode of the '45 for the clan was a victory over Cromartie's force as it retreated to join Charlie at Culloden. Most of the Jacobite officers were captured, many of the men were killed.


URQUHARTs

*

The Urquharts supported Charles Edward Stewart. They participated in the Jacobite Risings of 1715 and the Clan chief was killed at the Battle of Sheriffmuir.
Unlike his cousin, chief William Urquhart of Meldrum, a cautious Jacobite who avoided the disaster at Culloden, Adam Urquhart of Blyth was open in his loyalties and was a member of Bonnie Prince Charlie’s court-in-exile at Rome.
Urquhart Castle has no association with Clan Urquhart. See Clan Grant.

TOTAL

20650

Other Clans not mentioned here also fought for Prince Charlie.
The Clans in italics are not mentioned on the list of the 135 clans registered with the Lord Lyon Court, the official body regulating heraldry in Scotland.


You are listening to "the Waulking of the Faulds", the Gaelic Song of the Clans" (sequenced by Ch.Souchon)